Menstrual Concerns

The Menstruation Period

Menstruation is a major stage of puberty in girls and refers to physiological changes happening in women at regular intervals of 21-35 days.

The menstrual period prepares women for sexual reproduction and fertilisation and having a regular menstrual cycle is a clear sign of a healthy individual. Any abnormalities such as delayed or early menstrual periods, excessive pain & bleeding during the periods indicate that you might be suffering from certain gynaecological conditions and require immediate medical intervention.

What are Common Menstruation Irregularities?

Common menstruation irregularities include:

    • Amenorrhea – No menstrual periods until the age of 16 years or absence of menstrual periods in the absence of pregnancy
    • Dysmenorrhoea – Painful menstruation periods
    • Menorrhagia – Excessive bleeding which lasts for 8 to 10 days
    • Oligomenorrhoea – Irregular menstrual periods or getting periods frequently
    • Premature ovarian failure – Normal function of the ovary is stopped prior to when menopause is expected
    • Uterine Fibroids – Non-cancerous tumours observed in women of childbearing potential
    • Endometriosis – Tissues lining the uterus from inside grow outside the uterus (normally the tissue grows inside the uterus)

Women may experience other symptoms such as burning while urinating, fever, painful bowel movements, vaginal discharge, painful cramps, and lower back pain. Menstrual irregularities should be diagnosed early to prevent complications such as infertility (inability to get pregnant), anaemia, haemorrhage, and uterine cancer.

Treatment of Menstruation Irregularities

Common forms of treatment for menstruation irregularities:

  • Dedication – such as prostaglandin inhibitors, hormone replacement therapy or antibiotics
  • Dilatation and curettage (D&C) – involving dilation and gentle scraping of the lining of the uterus
  • Change of contraception – it may be necessary to explore methods of contraception other than the IUD or hormones
  • Surgery – to remove tumours, polyps or fibroids or to treat ectopic pregnancy
  • Treatment of underlying disorders – such as hypothyroidism or a bleeding disorder
  • Hysterectomy – the removal of the entire uterus is a drastic last resort, generally only considered in cases where treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding, unless serious disease, such as cancer, is also present.

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