Frequently Asked Questions

Dr Joseph Sgroi

What does keyhole surgery involve?
Keyhole surgery involves passing a surgical telescope through a small hole in the abdomen usually the belly button. Afterwards, your belly button looks and feels like nothing has happened. There may be three or four smaller incisions on the sides of the abdomen where instruments are passed to perform the surgery. These are usually a centimeter long. This results in very minimal pain, more rapid recovery and very small scars that often fade and are not noticeable several months later.
What Should I Expect During My First Visit
During your initial visit, Dr Sgroi will ask you questions about your medical history and perform any necessary examination or ultrasound. Apart from your Medicare and insurance information, you will need to prepare for your first visit and bring the following documents: A referral from your General Practitioner or family doctor
    All pertinent x-ray reports and test results from your primary care or referring physician
    A list of all medications that you are currently taking
    A list of any known drug allergies and the symptoms you may experience from taking these medicines
    If you have had surgery elsewhere, please bring a copy of your operation report.
Dr Sgroi will organise all the relevant investigations required. You will meet with him after these are done so that together you can go through your management plan.  

The Clinic

How Can My Family Doctor Help Me To Obtain Specialist Medical Care?
Before seeing Dr Sgroi, it is always preferable to talk to your own family doctor, who can discuss your condition with you and advice on whether any specialist care is appropriate. If it is, he or she can help refer you to Dr Sgroi. Dr Sgroi will liaise with your family doctor regarding your medical condition so that they can both provide you with optimal care.
Are My Medical Records Kept Private And Confidential?
Your medical file is handled with the utmost respect for your privacy. Our staff are bound by strict confidentiality requirements as a condition of employment regarding your medical records. Your personal information is handled in accordance with federal and state privacy law. his includes complying with the federal Australian Privacy Principles (APPs) forming part of the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) and the Victorian Health Privacy Principles (HPPs) forming part of the Health Records Act 2001 (Vic). More information about the APPs and HPPs can be found on the Australian Information Commissioner'swebsite www.oaic.gov.au or in hard copy on request from our Practice reception. Your personal information will only be used or disclosed for purposes directly related to providing you with quality health care, or in ways you would reasonably expect us to use it in order to provide you with this service.
What Should I Expect During My First Visit
During your initial visit, Dr Sgroi will ask you questions about your medical history and perform any necessary examination or ultrasound. Apart from your Medicare and insurance information, you will need to prepare for your first visit and bring the following documents: A referral from your General Practitioner or family doctor
    All pertinent x-ray reports and test results from your primary care or referring physician
    A list of all medications that you are currently taking
    A list of any known drug allergies and the symptoms you may experience from taking these medicines
    If you have had surgery elsewhere, please bring a copy of your operation report.
Dr Sgroi will organise all the relevant investigations required. You will meet with him after these are done so that together you can go through your management plan.  

Referral Process

Do I Need A Referral To Make An Appointment?
Generally, Dr Sgroi will accept only referred patients. This ensures that your family doctor is aware of your appointment with Dr Sgroi, and also because Medicare provides you with a rebate for Dr Sgroi's specialist services. Overseas patients or those patients without access to Medicare may not require a referral. If you have a query regarding whether a referral is required please contact Dr Sgroi's rooms.

IVF

Do you have menstrual concerns?
Menstruation is a major stage of puberty in girls and refers to physiological changes happening in women at regular intervals of 21-35 days. Menstrual period prepares women for sexual reproduction and fertilisation and having regular menstrual cycle is a clear sign of healthy individual. Any abnormalities such as delayed or early menstrual periods, excessive pain & bleeding during the periods indicate that you might be suffering from certain gynaecological conditions and require immediate medical intervention. Read More
What is a Recurrent Miscarriage?
Unfortunately, miscarriages are a common occurrence, with one in six pregnancies ending before week 20. This is a very sad experience and it is important to determine if there is anything that can prevent future miscarriage. Having people to support you is most important. That said most women who experience a miscarriage will go on to have a baby, so keeping positive about future pregnancies is paramount. A small percentage of couples will experience more than one miscarriage. About 2% of women experience three or more consecutive early pregnancy losses. This is called recurrent miscarriage or recurrent pregnancy loss.
Are you considering IVF?
Before you make this decision, it is important to know that there are steps you can try prior to trying IVF, such as ovulation induction or IUI (intra uterine insemination). Depending on your particular fertility issue, these alternative treatments may be suitable for you, however it is best to speak to a fertility specialist first to verify what steps you should take. When a patient first makes an appointment with Dr Joseph in one of the IVF clinics, he reviews previous investigations, organises any extra relevant tests that may need to be taken and outlines a management plan based on the patient’s condition. A pre-treatment appointment is also made to discuss this plan. Usually around 80-90% of women under the age of 35 can conceive within a year of trying. If you haven’t become pregnant after this time it is advisable to contact Dr Joseph. For women over 35, if you are not pregnant within six months of trying, please contact Dr Joseph. Other possible reasons for infertility concern include a low sperm count in men, irregular or absent menstrual cycles, painful periods, a history of endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease, previous miscarriages, or previous chemotherapy or cancer treatment. Diagnosis and tests are conducted in an IVF clinic in Melbourne via blood tests, biopsies, ovarian reserve testing, imaging studies, laparoscopic evaluation and hysterosalpingography viewing.

Fertility

Do you have menstrual concerns?
Menstruation is a major stage of puberty in girls and refers to physiological changes happening in women at regular intervals of 21-35 days. Menstrual period prepares women for sexual reproduction and fertilisation and having regular menstrual cycle is a clear sign of healthy individual. Any abnormalities such as delayed or early menstrual periods, excessive pain & bleeding during the periods indicate that you might be suffering from certain gynaecological conditions and require immediate medical intervention. Read More
How is male infertility diagnosed?
We will start with a conversation to understand your medical history a physical examination. Additionally, we will complete a semen analysis so we can check the number, shape and movement of sperm. The samples will be sent to a laboratory and checked for abnormalities and the presence of antibodies. In the event that abnormalities in the semen analysis, we may require blood tests to help us assess hormone levels too, which will assist in the final diagnosis. Other things we will consider are a testicular biopsy. This involves a fine needle and microscope being used to check the network of tubes within the testicles. We will also complete ultrasound scans to enable us to look in more detail at organs like the prostate gland.
Causes and Symptoms of male infertility
There are not a lot of symptoms of male infertility. The biggest one is the inability to conceive a child after 12 months of trying. Some other things to look out for include:
  • Problems with sexual function — including difficulty with ejaculation, reduced sexual desire, and difficulty maintaining an erection.
  • Pain, swelling or lumps in the testicle area
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Inability to smell
  • Abnormal breast growth
  • Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality
What is sperm?
Males produce sperm which provide the genetic material required for a developing baby. Sperm when fully developed can’t be seen by the human eye. They are very small – 0.05 millimetres long. Sperm are made up of three parts, a head, neck and tail. In the head is a structure called the nucleus, which contains 23 chromosomes. The most common causes of male infertility are sperm-related and include:
  • Azoospermia, no sperm cells are produced
  • Oligospermia, where few sperm cells are produced
  • Teratospermia, where a high proportion of sperm is abnormally shape
A semen analysis is done at any laboratory or Melbourne IVF. It's where the semen and sperm are examined under a microscope. The scientists will assess:
    • Volume
    • Sperm count or concentration/ml
    • pH
    • motility
    • morphology
A normal semen analysis result shows a sperm count of at least 20 million sperm per mL. Men with an abnormal semen analysis should book in to see a Fertility Specialist to discuss further.  
How is fertility treated
Dr Joseph Sgroi will suggest a treatment suitable for your problem. Fertility drugs may be recommended to stimulate and regulate ovulation, in women who are infertile due to ovarian disorders. Other options include assisted insemination, where healthy sperm is collected, concentrated, and placed directly into your uterus, when your ovary releases eggs to be fertilized. This procedure is known as intrauterine insemination (IUI), and can be in tandem with your normal menstrual cycle or fertility drugs. Apart from these, problems with your uterus, such as intrauterine polyps or scar tissue, can be treated with surgery. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a type of assisted reproductive technique, which involves collecting multiple mature eggs from a woman and fertilising them with sperm outside the body, in the lab. Once fertilized, the embryos are implanted into the uterus within three to five days. Some of the other techniques used in IVF include intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI – a single healthy sperm cell is directly injected into a mature egg), assisted hatching (the outer covering of the embryo is removed to facilitate embryo implantation into the uterus), and using donor eggs or sperm. Gestational surrogates may also be considered for women for whom pregnancy poses high health risks, or for those who have a nonfunctional uterus.
What are the causes of Infertility
Infertility can be present from birth (congenital) or can be acquired as you age. Some of the causes may include: Problems with ovulation: Certain conditions, like polycystic ovarian syndrome (ovaries secrete excessive amounts of male hormone testosterone) and hyperprolactinemia (produce high amounts of prolactin, a hormone that induces the production of breast milk), can prevent your ovaries from releasing eggs. Damaged fallopian tubes: Fallopian tubes carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Any damage to them can affect the fertilisation of the egg by the sperm. Pelvic surgeries and infections can cause formation of scar tissue that can damage your fallopian tubes. Abnormalities of the cervix and uterus: Abnormal mucus production in the cervix, problems with the cervical opening, abnormal shape and presence of benign tumors in the uterus can all contribute to infertility. Premature menopause: Mostly caused by a condition known as primary ovarian insufficiency, premature menopause occurs when menstruation stops before the age of 40. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, though various treatments for cancer and abnormalities with the immune system have been known to contribute to it. Adhesions: Bands of scar tissue can form in the pelvis after an infection or surgery. Other medical conditions: Diabetes, endometriosis, thyroid disorders, sickle cell disease or kidney diseases can affect the fertility of a woman. Medications: Certain medications have been known to cause temporary infertility. Stoppage of those medications can restore fertility in most of the cases. The chance of infertility increases with age. This increases if you smoke, consume excess alcohol, or are overweight, obese, or underweight.

Gynaecology

Do you have menstrual concerns?
Menstruation is a major stage of puberty in girls and refers to physiological changes happening in women at regular intervals of 21-35 days. Menstrual period prepares women for sexual reproduction and fertilisation and having regular menstrual cycle is a clear sign of healthy individual. Any abnormalities such as delayed or early menstrual periods, excessive pain & bleeding during the periods indicate that you might be suffering from certain gynaecological conditions and require immediate medical intervention. Read More
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